Luis Téllez, Enrique Rodríguez-Santiago, Agustín Albillos
Fontan-associated liver disease is a hepatic disorder arising from hemodynamic changes and systemic venous congestion following Fontan surgery. The histological changes produced in the liver are similar but not equivalent to those seen in other forms of cardiac liver disease. While the natural history of this form of liver disease is not well established, over time many Fontan patients develop portal hypertension-related complications such as ascites, variceal hemorrhage or encephalopathy. Fontan survivors also show an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Early diagnosis of advanced liver disease is mandatory for the prevention and treatment of complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma, esophageal varices and malnutrition. This review updates current knowledge of the pathophysiology and management of Fontan-associated liver disease including new diagnostic methods and treatments.
Key words. Fontan surgery., Liver disease., Hepatocarcinoma., Ascites., Fontan failure.